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Annotated Bibliography

Conley, D. T., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2013). Creating Systems of Assessment for Deeper Learning. Stanford Center for Opportunity

Policy in Education.

The authors claim that with the Common Core State Standards the need for updated assessments is key to measure deeper thinking and support 21st century skills. This would be a combination of sit-down and performance based assessments. Another key aspect is that Common Core State Standards are not just a test students can take, but might be more a longer assessment throughout the year. One example would be summary data. In other words, a more portfolio based assessment.


Ladson-Billings, G. J. (2005, May/June). Is the Team Alright? Diversity and Teacher Education. American Association of Colleges for 

Teacher Education, 56(3), 229-234. 10.1177/0022487105275917

Ladson-Billings discusses the faults in teacher education. One particular note is how there has been improvement with bringing in more female teachers, but not a lot of effort in bringing in teachers of color. A key aspect about this is that we are having a more ethnically, linguistically, and culturally diverse student population and yet the teachers do not represent that. She also mentions that if it was just a culture match, DC and Detroit would be the best school districts around. She claims that “the real problems facing teacher education are the disconnections between and among the students, families, and community and teachers and teacher educators. These dis-connections emanate from differences in race, class, cultural background, and socioeconomic status.” Much of what she talks about in the teacher education components is how all the faculty are white men and the times that schools have tried to hire faculty of color there has been a lot of pushback. Furthermore, she discusses how white female faculty takes on articles written by black women, they disconnect from the actual text they are teaching about. All around, there needs to be more diversity in the teaching field not only for students of color but also for white students to gain a holistic view of the world.


Ladson-Billings, G. (2006). It’s Not the Culture of Poverty, It’s the Poverty of Culture: The Problem with Teacher Education.

Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 37(2), 104-109.

“It’s Not the Culture of Poverty, It’s the Poverty of Culture: The Problem with Teacher Education” by Gloria Ladson-Billings (2006) it talks about how teachers often use the word “culture” to mean “not-white.” It also discusses the need for an anthropological view on teacher education not just the psychology and developmental side. This article covers three key areas: the self-esteem problem, the culture answer, and what we need to do. Ladson-Billings (2006) suggests that the self-esteem problem is connected to how America judges itself against other countries and by doing so blames individuals for their lack of success not the systems that connect to students success or failure. This leads into the use of culture as being the answer for everything. One example she uses is about a teacher claiming that all the black kids are loud and don’t listen and that is just part of their culture. Ladson-Billings (2006) then pushed back on this teacher and suggested that it might actually be just the age and development stage they are. Culture is often used as a catch-all for race. Culture is used as a codeword for difference which is inline with how it is hard for teachers to untangle the two. Ladson-Billings (2006) then gives suggestions on what teachers can do to work on this. One example is to see students outside of school where they are successful. This could be visiting their neighborhoods, watching them play a sport, or seeing them participate in a club. Another suggestion she makes is sending teachers out in the field before making a proposal. Since the system often makes a proposal and then go out in the field, teachers will often go into the field seeing what they want to see out of students.


Ritchhart, R., & Perkins, D. (2008, February). Making Thinking Visible. Educational Leadership, 65(5), 57-61.

This article discusses the critical need for making thinking visible and what that really means. It suggests that making thinking visible makes the learning happen. By making thinking visible it helps connect ideas with other students. It creates a deeper social connection to learning. Learning is a social endeavor and by making thinking visible it fosters a safe space to work through complex ideas together as a community. Furthermore, this article points out the benefits of making thinking visible for ESL students and making the classroom more accessible to them as well as hopefully bringing their full authentic self and culture. 


Love, B. L. (2019). We want to do more than survive : abolitionist teaching and the pursuit of educational freedom. Beacon Press.

Bettina Love discusses the necessity of teaching students about racial violence, oppression, and sustaining change within a community through radical civic initiatives and movements. Throughout the book, she claims that the American Education system is used as a way of profiting off of the suffering of students of color and that reform doesn’t make change. We as educators must work to be abolitionist teachers and dismantle the education survival complex. This radical change needs to come from a place of imagining a world that doesn’t exist yet. Things that teachers need to keep in mind is spirit murdering and how can teacher bring spirit and humanity back into the classroom.


Tatum, PhD., B. D. (2017). Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria: And Other Conversations About Race.

Perseus Books Group.

Daniel Tatum examines the psychology around race. She breaks down the reasons why teachers might see black students and other students of color sitting together at school. At the core of this book, Daniel Tatum believes that talking openly about race is incredibly important to make sure that we can have conversations across racial barriers. In this 20th edition version of the book, Daniel Tatum also brings to light a deeper look at how other racial identities are affected and how they are different and similar as black students.

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